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Glossary of Furniture Terms



A
acroterium - 
Originally an ornament on the roof corners of Greek temples.  Similar ornaments are used on the top corners of classical furniture.  

ambulante - (French). Small portable table used for serving tea.

amorini - (Italian). Decorative cupids profuse in Baroque work, especially under direct Italian influence.

angel bed - Canopy bed with no pillars in the front.  The curtains draw back on the sides at the head of the bed.  Typically the canopy extends over only a portion of the bed, while the counter pane goes right down over the foot.  Chiefly French, 18th century.

anthemion - Greek honeysuckle pattern conventionalized to radiating clusters.

arabesque - Ornamental design consisting of intertwining floral or geometric scrolls.  Usually framed within a simple shape such as a rectangle.  Originally found in Arabic or Moorish decoration.

arcade - A carved decoration representing a series of arches.

armoire - A tall cupboard or wardrobe with doors.

Arts and Crafts Movement - A movement in decorative and fine arts in Europe and North America between 1880-1910, emerging in Japan in the 1920s.  It stood for traditional craftsmanship using simple forms, and often used medieval, romantic or folk styles of decoration.

Art Deco - A style of decorative art that first appeared in France after World War I and began to flourish internationally in the 1920s.  It is an eclectic style that combines traditional craft motifs with Machine Age imagery and materials.  Characterized by bold color, bold geometric shapes and symmetry.

Art Nouveau
 - (French for "New Art"), defines a style of art which was applied to furniture (as well as many other objects and structures) from approximately 1890 to 1910. The primarily curved line style is artist inspired by natural objects like trees, plants, flowers, leaves, the human female figure, flowing hair, etc.

B
Baroque
 -The tendency of European design in the 17th century toward exaggerated, over-emphasized brilliance.  Characterized by large curves, twisted columns, distorted and broken pediments, and oversized moldings.  


Biedermeier - An influential German style of furniture that evolved during the years 1815-1848.  Emphasis was kept upon clean lines and minimal ornamentation. Artisans used locally available materials such as cherry, ash and oak wood rather than expensive imported timbers.  Stylistically, the furniture was simple and elegant.  Its construction utilized the ideal of truth through material, something that later influenced the Bauhaus and Art Deco periods.     

boulle
 - A style of furniture with ornate brass and tortoise shell inlay, named for Andre-Charles Boulle, (1642-1732), who perfected the marquetry style and was a cabinetmaker for King Louis XIV of France.


bronze - Extensively used for furniture in the ancient world, its strength permitted an extreme lightness of design that is accepted as typically Greco-Roman, and was so copied in the classic revivals of the 18th-century France.  Louis XV and subsequent work is noted for its superb bronze chasing and modeling.

bureau - In America it refers to a chest of drawers, generally found in the bedroom, that was highly developed in the early 19th century.

Byzantine - From the Roman Empire of the East, centering in Constantinople, 476-1200.  The furniture is characterized by rich carving, with inlays of gold, glass, stones, in motives of ritual significance.  Interlacing bands, stiff animal forms, sharply cut foliage, etc. remain in later Russian and South European as well as Italian work.

C
cabochon - 
Carved ornament resembling a gem or polished stone, common in French Rocco work and English derivatives.


cabriole - Furniture legs shaped in a double curve, the upper part swelling out, the curve singing in toward the foot, which again flares out.

cane - Flexible rattan woven in open patterns for chair seats, backs, etc. 

canopy - Covering or hood over bed or throne, suspended from wall or ceiling or carried on posts.  Architecturally, an ornamental projection.

Carlton Table; Carlton House Desk - English writing table from the end of the 18th century and early 19th century.  Also referred to as a lady's drawing or writing table with a bank of small drawers and compartments  placed upon a desk.  The central part of the tabletop pulls our or is adjustable to an angle, and beneath this leaf are wide drawers for drawing paper. 

Caryatid - Greek architectural ornament in the form of female figures used as supporting columns.  Adapted to form legs of tables, chairs, cabinet stands, etc., as well as pilasters for beds, cabinets, mantels, paneling, etc..

cassapanca - Italian settee formed by adding arms and back to a chest.

castor - Small roller attached to the feet or base of furniture, for ease in moving around without lifting.

Cathedral shape - Pointed arch in bookcase tracery, late 18th and 19th centuries (Gothic revivals) in England and America; also on the backs of some Sheraton chairs, and in the shaping of the bases of some simple chests of drawers.

causeuse - Upholstered armchair with open sides.

center table - A table finished on all sides so that it may be used in the center of a room.

certosina - Style of inlay using bone or ivory on a dark wood ground.  Usually small geometric patterns - stars, triangles, crescents, etc.. Appears in Venetian work in the 14th century; also in Spanish work of Moorish type, and in subsequent derivations.

chaise lounge - A long chair; a form of daybed or sofa with upholstered back, for reclining.

chamfer - Groove, beveled, or splayed corner of a post or a molding.

chest of drawers - A case fitted with drawers for storage, usually of clothing.

Chesterfield - Overstuffed couch or sofa with upholstered ends.

Chippendale, Thomas, 1718-1779 - London cabinet-maker and furniture designer in the mid-Georgian, English Rocco, and Neoclassical styles.  In 1754 he published The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director.  Its influence spread everywhere; the Continent and colonies used it as a guide to style, design, and construction.  Chairs of Chippendale design are most characteristic, particularly the types in which the solid splat is made lighter by being pierced into graceful openwork convolutions of ribbons and scrolls.  Bookcases and cabinets are remarkably well proportioned; sideboards and chests, cabinets, tables show the same mastery.  Chippendale died in 1779, and his son, Thomas Chippendale Junior, continued his workshop.

claw and ball - Foot carved in the form of a bird's foot gripping a ball.  The cabriole leg terminating in the ball and claw was a favorite motive in Chippendale's earlier work, but it ceased to be fashionable after 1765.

coffee table - Low, wide table used before a couch or sofa.

credenza - A dining room sideboard cupboard, particularly one where a central cupboard is flanked by quadrant glass display cabinets.

cupboard - Cabinet or box with doors, for storage.  The special types and names are numerous, springing from special uses and locations.  Sometimes a cupboard is considered an architectural feature only, the free-standing equivalent being a cabinet.

D
davenport
 - An upholstered sofa


davenport desk - Small writing desk, chiefly mid-19th century English.  Characteristically, there are small drawers that pull out sideways and a lift lid.

decalcomania
 - Picture applied in reverse to paper, then transferred to furniture by sticking and removing the paper.  It appeared in the late 18th century as a less expensive substitute for hand painting.  It was popular in the early 1800's chiefly in America.  Hitchcock and similar chairs were often decorated with such transfer patterns.


desk - A piece of furniture with a flat or sloped surface and typically with drawers, at which one can read, write or do other work.

demilune - (French for "half moon"), used to describe shape of half-round or bowfront furniture pieces.

disc foot - Flat, rounded foot in Queen Anne work.


divan - Upholstered couch with arms or back, originating in Turkish form of pile of rugs for reclining.

dovetail - Method of joining boards at the ends, as in a drawer of a case, made of interlocking tenons suggesting the form of a dovetail.  Also, a butterfly shaped inset used to join boards lengthwise in table tops, floors, etc.


dowel - Wooden round peg or pin fitted into holds in two adjacent pieces of wood, with glue to hold them together.

draft chair - Large English wing-backed chair; wholly wood in Tudor, upholstered in later styles.

drake foot - Three-toed foot occurring in 18th century furniture.

dresser -  A low chest of drawers, with a mirror over it, for clothing, storage, and dressing (American usage).

dressing table - Almost any form of table may be used as a dressing table when it is equipped with the customary mirror, drawers, etc.  Dressing tables appeared commonly around the end of the 17th century.  

dressoir - Buffet-cupboard-sideboard, usually with open shelves or racks for china.  

drop leaf - Hinged flap or leaf on the table that when raised enlarges the top.

Duchesse - French chaise longue, or large upholstered chair and stool designed together to form a couch.  

Duchesse bed - French canopy bed with full tester, fixed to the wall instead of to posts, the drapery hanging down to the bedding and floor.

Dutch Colonial - Period of Dutch colonization in North America, 17th century.  This is simplified Baroque; massive, stolid, unpretentious.  Local woods were used almost exclusively; turning is common, usually deeply cut and with feet oftern eccentrically turned to produce a rudimentary cabriole foot called Dutch foot, spoon foot, or duckfoot.  There was some rude carving, but paint wasa more common decorative medium.

E
Ebeniste (Ebonist)
 - French for "cabinetmaker." The craze for ebony in the early 17th century led master craftsmen, then called huchiers, to advertise their ability to work in this difficult wood.  The name lingered to denote a cabinetmaker of masterful skill.


ebony - Tropical wood of general black color, heavy and dense in texture.  Of those in current use, the blackest is the Gaboon ebony; the Macassar has stripes of light brownish orange and black-brown.

egg-and-dart - Carved enrichment of an ovolo molding suggesting alternately eggs and darts.  An ancient architectural ornament, it is one of the most frequent in carved woodwork of all lands after the early 16th century.  Echinus is Greek egg-and-dart molding.

Empire - The neoclassic style of architecture and decoration created practically by edict of Napolean.  The furniture is rectangular, architecturally massive and excessively sumptuous, rich woods and metal mountings offsetting the rectilinear simplicity.  Mahogany, rosewood, and ebony were the rule, with brass or gilt mounts in the form of swags and festoons, wreaths and laurel branches, torches, mythological figures, and the Napoleonic emblems of the bee, the crown and the letter N; later, sphinxes and other Egyptian figures were used.  The tripod table and other Pompeiian details are common.  Fabrics bore the same ornaments and were executed chiefly in hard textures and strong shades of green, yellow, blue, and red.

end table - General term for any small table used in relation to a couch, chair, etc.  Small tables of all periods or original purposes are used now as end tables.

endive - Carved decorative motif, a variation on several acanthus leaves combined.  Originally favored in work off the Louis XIV period, it was extensively used by Chippendale.

escritoire (scrutoire, secretary) - Writing desk with drawers, pigeonholes, etc.

espangnolette - Female busts used as terminal ornaments on posts of cabinets, etc, usually arranged on the upper curves of volutes.  Common in styles of Louis XIV, the Regence, and Louis XV.

etagere - A series of shelves supported by columns, used chiefly for the display of curios.  Common in the 19th century, although graceful examples in exotic woods date back to the time of Louis XVI.

evolute - Recurrent wave scroll used to decorate friezes and bands.

F
façade
 - Front, using the word in the architectural sense.  The faces of chests, etc., were often treated to resemble architectural facades, particularly in the classic revivals.


fallfront - Drop lid or drop front, as in a cabinet-desk or piano.

fall-leaf table - Drop leaf or flap table.

farthingale chair - English chair, period of Elizabeth and James I.  Constructed without arms in order to permit the then fashionable wide dresses, called "farthingales" to spread in all directions.

fauteuil - French upholstered armchair.  The sides are open, while the sides of the bergere are upholstered solidly.

Federal - American period, coincidental with the early years of the Republic, 1780-1830.  The style is completely classical, traces of antique Pompeiian and Greco-Roman design coming through Adam, Hepplewhite, Sheraton, and Regency influences from England; Lois XIV, Erectoire, and Empire influences from France.

festoon - Scalloplike series of loops, such as a rope, chain of flowers, drapery, etc., painted or carved for decoration; swag.

fiddle brace back - Windsor chair with two spindels radiating from a projection back of the seat up to the top bar.

fiddleback - Chairback whose splat resembles a violin.  Queen Anne.

fiddleback (veneer) - Parallel curly grain in wood such as maple, mahogany, walnut, koa, and others, like the finely marked sycamore selected for violin backs.

fielded panel - Panel formed by molding, grooving, or beveling around a plain surface.  Also a panel made up of smaller panels.

filigree - Wire work in delicate ornamental patterns.

finial - Decorative terminal, placed vertically to accentuate a point of the ending of a structural feature, such as a post, pediment, or intersection.

Flemish scroll - Baroque double scroll on chair legs, etc.  The lower curve is a C-scroll separated from the upper, a reserved C-scroll, by a right angle.

footstool - Low footrest related to a chair.

four-poster, four-post bed - American term for beds with the corner posts elongated.  Probably the field bed or low canopy bed descended to the four-poster simply by omitting the canopy.

French bed - Roll-end bedstead without posts.

French foot - Scrolled or spiraled foot, ornamented as with a dolphin.  Also, a slightly outswept foot as used by Hepplewhite.

fret - Interlaced ornamental work, either perforated or cut in low relief on a solid ground, usually in geometric patterns; also the tracery of glazed doors and windows.  

Friesian - Scratch carving in simple geometric designs, such as the wheel.  In Pennsylvania Dutch work it is found as decoration on rude pine Bible boxes, spoor racks, etc.

G
gadroon
 - Ornament carved on edges either of flat areas or of turnings resembling short convex or concave flutes or ruffles.  It is common in Elizabethan work, Italian Renaissance work and all style with Italian influence.  Chippendale used it exclusively for borders and top edges.


game table - One of the earliest specialized types of tables developed for games, such as dice, cards, chess or draughts, backgammom etc.  Examples from the sixteenth-century have needlework tops in patterns required for the various games; the ultimate development occurred in 18th-century England.

gargoyle - Grotesque figure originally used in architecture as decorative rainspout.  Best known in Gothic examples, it was adapted for purely ornamental purposes in some medieval and Renaissance woodwork.

gateleg table - The classification of table in which one or more drop leaves are supported by a leg or gate that swings away from a central fixed structure.  Gatelegs were made with as many as twelve legs, and appeared in every style during the 17th century.  In the nineteenth century the gateleg table retreated to provincial use, its place being taken by swing-leg types in the more advanced style centers.

Georgian (1714-1800) - In England within the period of George I, George II and George III.  Furniture was designed to match the majestic Neo-Palladian architectures favored by the aristocracy.  Curved lines were replaced with straight forms with intricate and abundant ornaments applied in low-relief.  The importation of mahogany wood was the most important change of the period as it ended the common use of walnut in furniture making.  The key designers of the period were Chippendale, Hepplewhite, Sheraton and Adam.

gesso - Plastic preparation used for raised ornamentation.  It was used extensively in Italy on furniture during the Middle Ages and afterward.  A gilded version was popular for a time under Charles II in England.

gilding - The application of gold leaf in order to produce a sumptuous effect.

Gillingham, James - Famous cabinetmaker born in 1736 in Philadelphia.  Gillingham was known for his simple, high quality furniture.

Gillow, Firm of - English cabinetmakers who constructed much furniture during he 18th and 19th centuries.

girandole (from French; girandola from Italy) - An ornamental branched wall bracket or chandelier, often with a mirror back.  In the late 18th century the mirror was made circular or convex-and was used alone.

Goddard, John - An American cabinetmaker of the late 18th century from Newport, RI.  Together with his son-in-law, John Townsend, they produced a distinct form of block-front desks, cabinets, secretaries, chests, etc. with shell carving.  Bracket feet, usually ogee in shape and finely carved or in clustered shapes are also typical.

gold leaf - Gold that has been hammered into thin sheets by goldbeating.  Layering gold leaf over a surface is called gold leafing or gilding.  This intricate ornamentation is a hallmark of the European Bronze Age.  Gold leafing is applied to jewelry, art, furniture and architecture to create a sumptuous effect.  

gondola (gondole) - Chair or sofa whose back curves continuously downward to form the arms.  The name comes from its supposed resemblance to an 18th-centruy gondola.

Gothic - Period of design that was heavily influenced by Roman and Medieval architecture.  Its initial design period was c.1150 to 1550, but saw a revival in the 19th century by the Victorians.  Furniture was massive and oak, adorned with Gothic (religious) motifs.  Constructions was sturdy, and featured arches, spiral-turned legs and rich upholstery in dark colors.

Gothic revivals - England had a brief interest in the Gothic after 1740.  Gothic images and ornamental forms were incorporated into furniture by Chippendale and other designers.  Another revival gained momentum in the early 19th century.

gouge carving - Rudimentary form of decorative carving.  Usually simple chisel marks in rhythmic repetition.

graining - Painting process used to resemble the color and figure of wood.

grille - Lattice work made of metal or wood use in the doors of bookcases and cabinets.  

grisaille - Painting in various shades of gray designed to create a three-dimensional effect. Fashionable in furniture decoration of the late 18th century.

gros pointe - Coarse stitch embroidery used for upholstering chairs, etc.

gueridon - A small, often circular-top, table that originated in France in the mid 17th century.  Used for such humble purposes as holding a candlestick or a vase.

guilloche - Continuous ornamentation of interlacing circles, found in every style after Assyrian.

guinea holes - Hollowed or scooped our corners found in 18th century English card tables used as receptacles for coins.

H
Hadley chest
 - Early American chest that has three panels in the front and drawers and that is typically ornamented on the front with tulip carvings.  First found in Hadley, MA.


harlequin table - Table invented by Sheraton in which the center section automatically rises when the leaves are raised, revealing compartments.

heart and crown - Baluster-back chair with heart and crown cutouts.

heart-back - Shield-back Hepplewhite type chair.

Hepplewhite, George - London furniture maker from the mid-16th century.  Some of his work modifies the earlier French styles; his later output develops the classic outlines.  Two years after his death in 1786 his widow, Alice, published The Cabinet Makers and Upholsterer's Guide "from drawings by A.Hepplewhite and Co., Cabinet Makers."  

herringbone - Inlay banding in which the alternately slanting grain produces a herringbone or chevron pattern.  

highboy - English tall chest of drawers, usually consisting of two sections, the upper chest sits upon a tablelike structure or lowboy with long legs.  Transported to the American colonies, it developed with William and Mary and Queen Anne influences into the unique and characteristic highboy of Colonial America of the 18th century.

Hitchcock, Lambert - American furniture manufacturer famous for designing the Hitchcock chair.  The typical form has turned legs, a turned crest rail, and one or more slates in the back, and is painted black with gold stenciling.

hock leg - Cabriole leg with a curve and angle under the knee.

hooded top - Shaped top, typically curved, on a highboy, clock case, etc.

hoof foot - Hoof-shaped leg base, 

hoop back - Chairback whose  uprights and upper rail form a continuous curve.  Similar to a bow back on a Windsor chair.

Hope, Thomas, 1769-1831 - English writer, designer, collector, and architectural dilettante.  His book Household Furniture and Interior Decoration (1807) introduced the term "interior decoration" into the English language.

hope chest - Dower chest traditionally used to store a bride's trousseau.

horseshoe arch - Arch whose curvature is more than half-circle.  Prevalent in Moorish decoration.

horseshoe back - The outward sweep at the base of the bow on the back of Windsor chairs.

horseshoe table - 18th century English wine table.

hunt table - Semicircular table with an opening in the middle with a pivoted device used for moving bottles around the table.  Also known as a wine table.

hunting chair - Chair designed by Sheraton with a slide foot rest on the front.

husk - Drop ornatmentation, such as a cornflower or catkins of shrubs, arranged in diminishing series.

hutch - A set or shelves or cabinets with doors.

I
imbrication
 - Decoration or embellishment resembling fish scales, adapted from the antique Roman in the Italian Renaissance.


Ince and Mayhew - Publishers of the The Universal System of Household Furniture (1762).  Many of the designs featured in the book were based on Chippendale's work, and much of their actual furniture is in a lesser Chippendale manner.

incised ornament - Engraved, deeply cut or carved work, cut into the surface rather than raised from it.

inlay - Designs formed in wood through the contrast of colors, grains, and textures of wood, ivory, mother-of-pearl, metal, tortoiseshell, etc., inserted flush into the wood.  

intaglio - Carved design etched in to the surface.

J
Jacobean
 - General term for the period of English history that coincides with the reign of James I (up to 1688).  Furniture of this era becomes lighter and more adaptable, with ornament changing from Early Renaissance types to Baroque.


jardinière - Ornamented box, jar or stand intended to hold flowers.

jeweling - Carving on the surface to simulate jewels.

joinery - The mechanics of furniture building and woodworking. It is the oldest term for the craft, and literally translates to the joining together of pieces of wood.

joint stool - Jacobean stool originally with mortise-and-tenon joints, and turned out legs.

K
Karelian birch
 - The wood is light yellow in color with dark brown markings, the wood is used in the manufacturing of furniture and woodenware.  


Kas - A Dutch cabinet or sideboard that is wood paneled and painted with rather primitive ornaments of flowers and vases.  First appeared in the Dutch American colonies of New York and the Delaware Valley.

Kent, William (1684-1748) - English furniture designer and architect of the Golden Age.  Credited with being the first English architect to design the furniture (both fixed and movable) of his rooms.  Also, famous for his landscape architecture.

kettle base, front - Bombe shaped case, with  bulging front and/or sides.

key pattern (Greek fret) - Ancient Greek ornamentation that features interlacing lines at right angles.  Inlaid or painted on English Regency and carved on Mid-Georgian furniture.

kidney style table, bench, desk, etc. - Oval shaped workspace with concave front to make it more accessible while sitting.  Appears in 18th-century furniture of France and England.  Favored by Sheraton.

klismos - Chair of ancient Greece, prototype for Classic Revival.

kneading table - European utilitarian furniture, now used as side  tables.  Provincial French styles were particularly decorative.

knee - The upper, convex curve of a cabriole leg, sometimes referred to as the "hip".

kneehole - The opening in the center of desks, chests, or bureaus meant to accommodate the sitter's knees.

knuckle - The carving on the outside of a chair, prevalent in Chippendale and Windsor furniture.

L
lacquer
 - A high dense finish acquired by tedious padding up and rubbing down multiple coats of shellac.  Modern lacquer is a compound of cellulose derivatives.  


ladder back - Chairbacks with horizontal slats that resemble a ladder.  Common in Pilgrim furniture and in simpler Chippendale pieces.

ladies' desks - Smaller, lighter desks developed in France and England after 1690.

lambrequin - Drapery found around the top of a bed.

lampadaire - Pedestals designed to hold a lamp or candle; popular in the French Empire.

Lannuier, Charles-Honore - 19th century French-born cabinetmaker who lived and worked in New York city.  The style of his furniture was considered "French Antique."  Today his work is primarily classified as Federal, Neoclassical, or American Empire.

lantern clock - Table top clock in the shape of a lantern; late 17th century English.  Typically crafted in brass.

lapis lazuli - A bright blue metamorphic rock consisting largely of lazurite, widely used in decoration and jewelry.

lattice - Crisscross pattern in cutout work, often found in chairbacks.

leaf scroll foot - Base of a leg with foliated design.

lectern - Reading desk constructed of wood, metal, or stone.

library table - Large table with drawers usually in pedestal form.  Often containing a kneehole and a space for books.

lignum vitae -  West Indian wood used for veneering in the Late Stuart period.

lip molding - Small convex decorative molding found around drawers.  In Queen Anne and Early Chippendale work it was intended as a dust stop.

listel - Flat, plain molding.

lit clos - Paneled enclosure of wood around a bed; French "closed bed". Chiefly provincial French, 17th-19th centuries.

Lock, Matthias - English furniture designer and carver.  In collaboration with Copeland, published several books on ornament.  His early works were a Rococo character, later almost exact replicas of the Adam style.

long clock - Tall, hall or Grandfather's clock.

loop-back - Oval shaped chairback; also Windsor bow back, without arms.

loop hinge - Early hinge design constructed from two intersecting loops.

loose seat - Separate wood frame upholstered and fit into the framing of a chair seat.

loper - Sliding arms that support the drop front or lid of a desk.  

lounge - 19th century style of couch often with one end high as a pillow.

love chest - 18th-century Pennsylvania Dutch chest often engraved with the initials of the bride and groom.

love seat - A double chair or small sofa.  Also known as courting chair or a settee.

low relief - carving or built-up work.

lowboy - English low chest with drawers.  Starting in Jacobean times by raising a chest on a stand, continues through English and American work of the 18th century in various forms as dressing tables, side tables, etc.

lozenge - Panels, overlays, inserts, etc., of diamond shape that occur in Renaissance work of all descriptions.

lunette - Semicircular or half-moon shape filled with carving, inlay, or painting.  In Gothic furniture, lunettes were carved, while in English Late Georgian work they were often inlaid or painted with fan-shaped designs.

lyre motive - In Greek decoration it was a naturalistic representation of the lyre figure that was adapted by the Renaissance artists.  Strongly featured in Louis XIV and Louis XV decoration.  In Louis XVI style it occurs in symmetrical form.  Sheraton employed it conspicuously, as did the entire school of the Empire and Empire influence in England and America.  It is featured in Biedemeier's work in Germany and in early 19th century Italian furniture.

M
mahogan
y - Reddish-brown wood of medium hardness, great strength, and among the most beautiful for texture, ease of polishing, variety of grain and figure.  Mahogany is the essential ingredient of the great 18th-century school, which Macquoid calls the Age of Mahogany.  The Empire period featured it extensively; the Federal period in American work is essentially a mahogany style.


madiou - East Indian wood prized for decorative veneers, both in long grain and the fine, with even burls resembling amboyna.

malachite - A semi-precious stone named from the Greek word "mallow", a green herb.  Its banded dark and light green design give it a unique ornamental quality unlike that of any other stone.  The distinctive pattern of malachite is popularly imitated in design.

Manwaring, Robert - English furniture maker and designer, published The Cabinet and Chair Makers's Real Friend and Companion in 1765.  His style was very heavy and highly ornamented, resembling Chippendale.  Unfortunately few surviving pieces with his mark are known.

maple - A very hard and smooth wood, with exceptionally small fibers and pores.  It is almost white in color in the harder varieties, the softer maples being light tan or yellow-brown.

marbleizing; marbling - Wood painted to simulate  marble .

Marot, Daniel (1660-1720) - Architect and furniture designer who studied under Lapautre and Boulle.  He moved from Paris to Holland to escape religious persecution.  Marot's style is quintessence of the Baroque style of Louis XIV.  His talent inspired Dutch, French, and English artists for almost a century; Chippendale, Kent, and most other designers of the age appear to have profited by his work in no small measure.

marquetry - Inlay of contrasting wood into a background of veneer.

marquise chair - Wide bergere armchair, completely upholstered.

Mayhew, Thomas - English Georgian designer.

McIntire, Samuel (1757-1811) - Wood carver of Salem, Massachusetts.  Distinctive style and superb craftsmanship distinguish his mantelpieces, overdoors, and other carvings for furniture and architectural embellishment.

mechanical furniture - Furniture designed with devices that give an object more than a single or fixed use.  

medallion - A geometric shaped plaque painted or carved with decorative figures, ornament, etc.  French Renaissance and Italian work used medallions of stone set into the wood; the Adams brothers used cameolike medallions of pottery or painted wood.  

Meissonier, Juste Aurele (1693-1750)- French designer; developed Rococo style to greatest extravagance.  Introduced Italian features, such as broken shell-shape curves.

melon bulb - Thick bulbous turning typical of Elizabethan and Jacobean furniture. Thicker, more ornate types are early; later forms were smaller and not carved.  Not as prevalent in Continental styles.

menuisier - French word for cabinetmakers or joiner.

meridienne - Short sofa unique to the French Empire period.  It had one arm higher than the other.

meubles - French for movable furniture.

meubles de lux - The luxurious furniture that set the standards of most great styles.  The extremely decorative furniture in the great rooms of Continental palaces was really built more for show than for the use; its large scale, profuse ornamentation, and extreme cost render it unsuitable for inspiration for the design of average modern furniture.

Mid Century Modern - Is characterized by it’s clean, unadorned interiors. Use of natural materials such as wood, leather, teak and linen are prominent. Molded plywood and plastic is very popular in modern furniture, as well as polished metal. Furniture is very open and raised off the floor allowing for an airy feeling. Walls are often white adding to the expansive feeling. Modern interiors generally have bare floors and if area rugs are used, they are typically wool, and neutral in colour. Hints of colour were used in moderation. We generally refer to modern interiors as retro.

mirror - Looking glass of polished metal were known in ancient times, but the mirror of silvered glass appears in the Early Renaissance.  It was costly and available in small sizes, so that the important frame both exaggerated its size and emphasized its value.

mission - Spanish missions in southwestern North America (California, Mexico, etc.) were built by missionaries and Indians of native materials in a crude, substantial style. The furniture was heavy and square.  Upholstery was of leather, for ornament appliques of hand-hammered copper, large nailheads, or simple cutout patterns were popular.  The style lacked charm or subtlety; its clumsy weight and decorative poverty quickly condemned it and by 1913 it was extinct.

miter (mitre) - Joint in a molding where it changes direction, usually at 90 degrees.

modern furniture -  Furniture produced from the late 19th century through the present that is influenced by modernism. Post-World War II ideals of cutting excess, and practicality of materials in design heavily influenced the aesthetic of the furniture.

modillion - Projecting brackets, usually enriched with carving, at regular intervals under the cornice in the Roman Corinthian Composite, and Ionic orders.

molding - A shaped profile applied to walls and furniture to emphasize the difference in planes or to provide decorative bands of light and shade.  

money motive - Decoration of flat overlapping desks, like scaling.

Moresque - The style of decoration left in Spain by the Moors characterized by high color, abstract geometric patterns of fine details, and gilding.

Morris, William (1834-1896) - An English artist, architect, poet who was a leader of a group of liberal artists and politicians who fostered handicraft design in simple naturalistic forms, producing textiles both printed and woven, furniture, stained glass, metalwork, etc..

Morris chair - A late 19th century easy chair with adjustable back, loose cushions forming the seat and back rest within a wooden frame.  Said to have been designed by William Morris.

Mule Chest - A chest with drawers at the bottom and cabinet doors above.

mushroom turning - Shallow cup turning found either in a leg section or as a finial.

myrtle - A light tannish-yellow wood with fine burl markings, used primarily for fine inlays nd veneered work; from the Pacific Coast.

N
necking
 - The narrow molding or collar around teh upper part of a column or a post.


Neoclassic - Revivals of interest in the ancient manner, such as the Renaissance, Adam, and the Empire styles.

Neo-Gothic - Revivals of Gothic detailing, principally after 1830 in England and America; to a lesser extent in Continental work in furniture.

Neo-Greek - Classic Greek influence in early 19th century, particularly American work of Late Empire style.

nest of drawers - Small drawers or boxes contained in a case; diminutive chest of drawers, chiefly English, 18th and 19th centuries.

nesting tables - Tables graduated in height allowing one to be stored under another; usually in sets of three.

Newport School - Mid-18th-century Rhode Island group of cabinetmakers, including John Goddard, and the Townsend family.  Concave shell and block forms in chests, secretaries, and clock cases, are among the best work of the period.

night stand - A low table or small cabinet for use next to a bed.

Norman - Style of French conquerors of England after 1066; a rugged, bold large scaled manner basically Romanesque, employing the sparing ornament and hard outlines of medieval fortress architecture.

Normandy - Furniture from the province of Normandy, France, that has a simple, refined rustic character reminiscent of the product of Colonial New England.

Nu-kane - A man made cane that is used in place of natural cane.  Manufactured from durable wood pulp based material.  

O
oak - 
A coarse0textured, hard, durable wood valuable for woodworking.

Oberkampf, Christophe Philippe (1738-1815) 
- A French textile manufacturer, creator of the toiles de jouy.

occasional tables 
- Small tables such as an end table, coffee table, console or side table.


Oeben, Jean-Francois - An outstanding French designer of Louis XV Rococo style.  Made celebrated "Bureau du Roi," completed by his pupil Riesener.

ogee - A molding detail that has double curve or S shape.

ogee bracket foot - A cabinet foot with cyma rebersa profile, found in American and some English work of the late 18th century.

onion foot - An oval-shaped cabinet foot.

onlay - A decorative applique, as of veneers.

Oppenord, Gilles-Marie (1672-1742) - A French cabinetmaker and designer of the Louis XV style.

orders - The standardized ornamental types of columns, with their associated bases, capitals, pedestals, entablatures, etc.

ormole - From the French or moulu; gilded brass or copper mounts for furniture principally used by the French ebenistes of the 18th century.

ornament - Every manner of embellishment to make one surface contrast with another, whether consciously applied or intrinsic in the nature of the material or design. 

ottoman
 - A low upholstered stool or footrest.


Oudry, Jean-Baptiste - 18th-century French designer; as director of Gobelin works after 1736, he influenced Rococo style.

oval back - A chair shape, best develped by Hepplewhite somewhat after French precedent.

overlay - The ornamental veneer applied upon the surface rather than inlaid into a veneer surface.

overmantel - Chimneypiece dominating room design called for an important element over fireplace. Trumeau was one such development, with mirror subordinate to carving and painted areas.  Horizontal emphasis appeared in the late 18th century in English and American work.

ovolo - A rounded convex molding referred to a quarter-round molding.

P
Pad foot​ -​ This is generally found adorning the bottom end of a Cabriole leg.

Palmette or anthemion​ -​ Often associated with classical architecture, it gives the impression of sprouting leaves, such as those you'd see on a palm tree.

Parquetry​ ​​-​ Contrasting shades of wood used to create a mosaic or geometric pattern.

Pedestal table​ -​ Generally a circular tabletop supported by a singular column.

Pembroke table​ -​ Commonly an oval or rectangular shaped occasional table with drop leaf sides and one or two drawers.

Pie-crust edge​ -​ Tables with this type of top have a raised edge that is crimped similar to that of a pie crust.

Plinth​ -​ The support that holds a pedestal or column generally found on furniture that has no legs.

Q
Queen Anne​ - ​This style has a classic ornateness which was popular during the reign of Queen Anne from 1702-1714.

R
Reeding​ - ​ Commonly found on furniture legs, whereby the surface is raised in a series of rounded parallel lines running up and down.

Regency​ - ​ This period ran from approximately​ ​1813-1837 in Great Britten during the reign of George IV. Identified by markings such as rosettes, masks, metal claw feet, and loose rings.

Rococo or late Baroque​ -​ This originated in France. It is generally characterized by ornate designs, which flow into one another, typically you'll see "C" and "S" patterns as well as shells and other natural shapes. Pastels were the predominate colors followed by gold and ivory whites.

S
Secretaire​ - ​ This French term is generally given to an upright piece of furniture with a hinged desk. It often comes with shelving on top and drawers below​.

Shoe​ - The projection from the backseat rail that supports the central wooden panel of a chair back (the splat).

Sideboard​ -​ These are often used in dining rooms as an accompaniment to a china cabinet and are frequently used for serving food and storage.

Side chair​ -​ A dining chair with no arms generally used for side seating.

Slat back​ - ​A chair back consisting of flat narrow bands of wood, either horizontal or vertical.

Sofa​ -​ An elongated upholstered seat with back and arms.

Sofa table​ -​ High narrow table that generally is placed behind a sofa.

Spindle back​ -​ A bench or chair, which uses spindles rather than a single panel.

T
Tallboy​ - ​A high chest of drawers that sometimes also includes a wardrobe.

Trestle table​ -​ A dining table generally rectangular, consisting of two or three supports connected by a crossbeam.

U
Upholstery​ -​ The outer layer of furniture usually consisting of padding, springs, foam, and webbing covered with decorative fabric or leather.

V
Veneer​ - ​Thin slices of wood glued over core panels on the exterior of furniture.

Victorian​ -​ Designed in the style of the period of time Queen Victoria ruled over Britain (1836-1901)​.

Volute​ -​ A spiral scroll-like ornament of Ionic capitals, often used as a decorative form on arm rests and feet in furniture.

W
Wardrobe​ - ​An upright closet used for storing clothes. Also referred to as an armoire.

Windsor chair​ -​ Often seen in colonial era furniture. It consists of a solid wooden seat with spindles and a hooped back.

Wing back​ -​ A chair with "wings" along the sides enclosing the person's head to provide protection from drafts and to maintain heat.